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Elaine Halligan

Elaine Halligan is a director at The Parent Practice and has been a parenting specialist since 2006, helping parents raise competent and confident children through parenting classes, private coaching and keynote speaking in schools and corporate settings both in the UK and overseas. She is frequently quoted in the broadsheet press and regularly appears on Sky News, BBC world news and BBC local radio. Her mission is to help parents find the holy grail of parenting: keeping calm and bringing out the best in their children.

Click here to listen to the Parent Practice podcast.

Click here to read Elaine’s interview in The Telegraph.

Click here to listen to Elaine’s podcast with The Extraordinary Business Book Club.

Click here to listen to Elaine’s podcast with How to Raise a Maverick.

Click here to listen to Elaine’s discussion with Conversations with Cyrus Webb.

Click here to listen to Elaine’s podcast ‘Late Night Parents’ on NY Radio.

Click here to listen to Elaine feature on ‘Top of Mind’ with Julia Rose on Sirius XM Satellite Radio/BYU Radio Network.

Click here to listen to Elaine’s interview with So Booking Cool!

Click here to listen to Elaine’s podcast interview with Teach Learning Leading K 12.

Connect with Elaine


Publications by Elaine Halligan

My Child’s Different

Elaine Halligan’s My Child’s Different: The lessons learned…

Author Blog

Is your child’s lack of cooperation a result of powerlessness?

If you live in the northern hemisphere your children have recently started a new school year. Some of them will be doing face to face learning (maybe after a long period away) and some will be learning from home. Some will start off doing in-school learning and then find themselves at home again for a period if schools are closed in response to an outbreak. Like all of us children find this constant change very unsettling and this upset may emerge in defiant behaviour. When we clamp down on the behaviour without addressing the underlying emotion not only will the behaviour remain but we will have caused a bit of disconnect with our child just when they most need to feel the security of connection with us.

Adults often think that the way to be in charge is to make every decision and brook no argument or even discussion about it from children, especially if that is how we were brought up ourselves. We often feel that when a child ‘talks back’ they are disrespecting our authority. Rarely is this their intention. There may be many reasons for uncooperative behaviour and the best thing we can do is to try to consider our child’s point of view and to gauge how they feel. If behaviour is unacceptable this approach is not to excuse it but to understand it and to know how best to respond to it.

This week I witnessed some very extreme behaviour from a little boy who was going through a very difficult time. His mum was in hospital and his dad was away from home and prevented from returning because of Covid restrictions. Arrangements for his care were piecemeal and he was not consulted about any of them. It is to be expected that adults need to make those kind of decisions but the result was a little boy who felt like his world was spinning around and he had no control over anything.

His way of expressing his upset included banging his feet on doors, up-ending rubbish bins, pulling electrical equipment out of the wall and trying to run away. When outside he uprooted several plants and turned the hose on me! Lucky it was a warm day…

It is not uncommon for children to feel really powerless and sometimes their response is to try to seize power wherever they can. For very young children the easiest areas to exert control are around food or using the toilet.

It is completely natural for all of us to want to have some autonomy in our lives. Humans are hardwired to seek to make choices according to our own free will. We hate being forced to do things. From around the age of 3 we discover the limits of our power and often find that hard to accept. The ‘terrible twos and threes’ can be characterised by a battle of wills. Young children don’t get to decide where they go, what they eat, who they interact with, what they can touch and when they bathe, brush teeth and go to bed or how many stories they can have. They can be very vocal in expressing their rage. Of course in adolescence there is a further drive for independence and this can again cause conflict with parents.

As we mature we accept some limitations on our power. As adults we accept some compromise on our freedoms as a trade-off for other benefits. For example we accept the need to wear seat belts and observe speed limits as part of the contract of using the roads and keeping us safe. This acceptance depends on a mature brain which can look to the future and make judgments about the perceived future benefit of accepting the current restriction. Of course not everyone makes the same cost/benefit analysis. Consider the different responses to Covid restrictions, like mask-wearing.

Preventing powerlessness from leading to defiance

Parents can help children process and move through their emotions. They can help them accept the limits on their autonomy. And they can help a child or young person feel that they have some say in their own lives too.

Emotion coaching

Research tells us that naming emotions helps a child to process and move through an emotion. fMRI scans show the emotional centres of the brain light up less when the feeling is labelled. Recognising that your child is frustrated by whatever it is they cannot do will help them to feel understood. Once the feeling is acknowledged  the child does not need to keep expressing it through their words or behaviour. Even if the parent seems to be the source of the frustration, because they are forbidding the desired activity, by recognising how the child feels there is still connection between adult and child. “You are so cross that mummy won’t let you climb up on the bookshelves. It’s my job to keep you safe but I know you really love climbing.” “I know you’re really annoyed that I won’t let you go to the music festival with your friends. You think my concerns are unreasonable. I know you think I should just trust you. Actually it’s not you I don’t trust….”

Give choices

Let your child choose whenever possible. They may not be able to say whether homework happens but they might be able to choose when, where and how it takes place. They can choose whether to brush their teeth before or after they get into pyjamas. They can choose what clothes to wear, even if it’s not your taste… most of the time. Many young children hate being picked up and we do want children to have autonomy over their bodies so it can work to give them a choice. “We have to go home now so you can choose to walk or skip over to the car on your own or I can give you a piggy back.”

Get your child’s input on matters that concern them. When setting limits for screentime for instance you could first set out your values around screens and then ask the children what they think the rules should be.

So if you find your child resisting the things they need to do consider how it seems from their perspective, acknowledge how they feel about it and ask for their ideas on how to make what they have to do more palatable.

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School anxiety? Doing chores can help kids feel more confident

If your children have just gone back to school and are feeling a bit anxious about it all they may benefit from a  boost to their confidence from a surprising quarter –housework. You may have been thinking that now that they are back at school and have their studies to focus on you should let them off doing jobs around the house. Don’t.

Chores are more than specific pieces of work done out of duty - doing them benefits the whole family as well as the individual child both in the present and for the future. Children who contribute to household tasks develop the following desirable attitudes or qualities:

  • An awareness of the needs of others and a willingness to contribute to others’ wellbeing (this counteracts the sense of entitlement in children that many parents are worried about)
  • A sense of connectedness to the family. This is vital for the child’s wellbeing. A sense of belonging fulfils a basic human need and helps them weather difficulties in the outside world
  • A feeling of making a contribution to the family. We all need to be needed
  • A sense of pride and accomplishment derived from the completion of tasks. This feeling of competency boosts confidence. A 2001 study on bullying by Oxford University’s Centre for Research into Parenting and Children linked responsibility for household chores to confidence which makes a child less vulnerable to bullying.
  • Development of life skills

Studies have shown that involving kids in household chores from an early age gives benefits across their whole lives, such as completion of education, getting started on a career path, IQ, relationships with family and friends, and not using drugs. The researchers determined that the best predictor of young adults' success in their mid-20s was that they participated in household tasks when they were three or four.

  1. Why don’t kids do chores?

Even though parents say they believe in the value of chores many of us don’t ask kids to do them at all because

  • we think the child is too young (ask yourself whether you think young children shouldn’t have any responsibilities or you think your child is incapable. We tend to underestimate what a child could do when taught. In the past children took on many more of the household’s responsibilities than now) or
  • we believe school aged children have enough to do with school work, that this is their ‘job’ (this prioritises academics and sporting commitments over making contributions to the family. It begs the question of our goals in raising children –is it just to advance their academic careers or is it to raise children who can balance caring roles with work) or
  • they anticipate that kids will ignore or resist requests to do tasks and don’t want to be nagging all the time (it’s quicker and easier and a lot less aggravating to do it ourselves). Children will naturally resist doing something unpleasant or uninteresting unless they seem some benefit in it and because their brains are not fully mature children have difficulty envisaging future benefits from a present inconvenience. It takes maturity and a positive parental attitude to get satisfaction from a job well done and to take pride in the contribution made to the smooth running of the household.

Even quite young children can do jobs. 3-4 year olds can wipe down a table and wash brushes after a painting session, put away toys after play and put clothes in drawers, thus learning that there are consequences to their actions and they need to take care of their own messes and look after their own things. They can pull up a duvet and put a pillow on the bed, can put laundry in a hamper, sort clothes into darks and lights, feed (or help to feed) a pet, lay a table, take everyone’s plates over to the sink and even help vacuum and wipe down a sink after tooth-brushing. Doing these tasks will require teaching in small steps and supervising.

5-8 year olds can do all of the above a bit more independently and help unpack the dishwasher, assist in washing the car, put away groceries, fold washing, water plants and some dusting (watch the precious ornaments!) and gardening work such as raking and weeding (you may need to identify which ones are the weeds).

8-12 year olds can add to that list emptying the washing machine and hanging washing on the line, washing dishes and pots and pans, putting rubbish bins out on collection day, cleaning up after pets, helping with food shopping and preparation, wiping down kitchen benchtops and bathroom surfaces and bathing independently.

Teenagers can also gradually take responsibility for planning and preparing simple meals, cleaning the fridge, toilet and shower, caring for younger siblings and ironing.

  1. How do we get children to do chores?

The best way to get children involved in contributing to household tasks is to change parental attitudes to and language around them. Move away from a coercive approach to one based on connection and motivation. Maybe don’t call them ‘chores’, but ‘responsibilities’ or ‘contributions’. I found that when I changed my language around tasks my children were much more willing to engage with them.

  • Adopt a whole family approach to looking after the household. Everyone contributes according to their ability and allocations of tasks are made in family meetings in which the children have some input. Don’t just require children to do tasks associated with their own things such as tidying their rooms or making their beds but include jobs that benefit others too such as laundry or cooking or gardening.
  • Require everyone’s involvement. The adults need to be really clear about why they are insisting on this because they will need to persist. Accept that you will need to supervise for a long time before the tasks become habitual. This will take longer than if you did it yourself (and the task won’t be executed to your standards) but your goal is to teach your child skills and attitudes for life not to get the floor mopped.
  • Empathise that your child may not want to do what’s required and brainstorm ways to make it easier or more fun. What about setting aside some time for everyone to have a chore blitz and get all the tasks done together? Or putting on some music or listening to story recordings while you work? Or wearing funny hats while working?
  • Appreciate everyone’s contribution. Use descriptive praise to motivate kids to keep doing their tasks. Give the children a sense of how valuable their contribution is. 

When my son started secondary school he was feeling very nervous at moving to a much bigger environment. It seemed counterintuitive to give him more responsibilities at a time when he was already dealing with so much but it really helped him believe in his own capacities.

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